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Scientific problems

Chelyabinsk State University its fame in the world science is  largely due to the archaeological team, which made not only a number of important scientific discoveries in the ancient history of the Southern Urals, but also managed to make them the property of the world scientific community, to introduce these discoveries into the system of world scientific knowledge.

CSU acted as an organizer not only of field studies, it was responsible for the fate of archaeological heritage (creation of protected areas, a museum of archaeology and ethnography CSU, organizational and methodological assistance for the opening of the nature and man museum of the reserve "Arkaim").

Scientists of archeological school of CSU, which was formed by G.B. Zdanovich, formulated the main problems associated with the discovery and study of Arkaim.

- Arkaim as a socio-cultural phenomenon of the Bronze Age (G. B. Zdanovich, D. G. Zdanovich)

- Arkaim and New Monuments of the "Country of Cities". (D.G. Zdanovich, T.S. Maliutina, A.V. Epimakhov, E.V. Kupriyanova )

-Ecology and Paleoclimate of the Arkaim Period (Levit A.I., Plaksina A.L.)​

The discovery and study of the Arkaim and monuments of its type is associated with an entirely new - in informational and conceptual terms - stage of the study of the ancient history of the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia. The fundamental scientific problems are:

-The role and significance of the Southern Urals in the ancient history of Eurasia (the Bronze Age and its legacy);

-The correlation between regional and global historical processes in antiquity;

-multiplicity of socio-cultural systems development and their ethnic component; -the history of the Ural ecosystems in the context of anthropogenic factor.


Southern Urals - territory  lying on the border between Europe and Asia, in the heart of the Eurasian steppes. Such geographical  location caused active involvement of the region's population in the ancient processes of ethno-, socio-, and cultural genesis. In the Bronze Age, at its separate stages, the impulses coming from the territory of Southern Urals were of key importance for Northern and Central Eurasia, the south of Eastern Europe (Balkans). Cultural formations of the Arkaim type demonstrate for the first time the "center-periphery" type relations, forming a network of interactions of local, regional and global ​​ levels ("early historical globalization"). In particular, it is connected with much deeper development of Eurasian wheeled transport - the appearance of light chariots with horse-drawn carriages.
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Of particular interest is the history of ecosystems in the Urals. They develop at the junction of two global climatic zones (Atlantic-continental and continental), which entails unstable climatic conditions. The study of ecosystems' response to such conditions in ancient times allows to better understand and predict their changes under the influence of anthropogenic factor. In this context the study of problems of complex economy of the Bronze Age, Arkaim agriculture, factor of exploitation of mineral resources and development of metallurgy in the developed Bronze Age is of great importance.​

The discovery of monuments such as the Arkaim makes us turn to questions concerning the trends and forms of social development in the Eurasian space during the pre-civilization era. A departure from the unilinear evolutionary paradigm in favor of the ideas of multilinearity and diversity of evolutionary social fields seems justified. Such concepts as "civilization", "post-primitive", "complex (complex) societies", "urbanization" and "(proto)city", problems of the role of elites in antiquity, forms of organization of egalitarian (protopolis) societies, etc. are fruitfully discussed and developed in connection with the Arkaim problematics. Discoveries in the Southern Urals also sharply raised the problems of the ancient ethnic history of Eurasia and the specifics of information transmission in unwritten societies as the most important factor in the evolution of cultures and the spread of their heritage in space - time. 

As applied scientific problems can be distinguished: the formation of solid methodological foundations of the integrated humanistic-natural-scientific knowledge in archaeology, improvement of methods of field and laboratory research of sources, development of new methods and explanatory models oriented to the historical interval between primitive and civilization / state.

The modern problems of Arkaim ("science about Arkaim") develop in the system of globalization of scientific knowledge, in conditions of interaction of different cultures of science (USA, Europe, traditions of USSR-Russia and CIS), coexisting within the multipolar world of the 21st century new (our) era. 
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