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Archaeological Museum of CSU was founded in late 1970s. The most outstanding and interesting materials It exhibits the most outstanding and interesting materials in the framework of the University archaeological expedition.

​In 2008 the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography was created as one of University Centre departments to study problems of human beings and the natural world. Currently exposition of the Museum consists of two rooms: the archaeological and ethnographic. Today, Museum’s visitors can get acquainted not only with the ancient history of the events of the Southern Urals, but also plunge into the world of the ethnographic present that is still alive in the memory of our parents and grandparents. Since 2009 to 2011 the Museum has been visited by more than three thousand people, mostly students and pupils, university guests, conference participants. In 2010 the Museum won the second place in the regional competition among museums of universities, held for the anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. The achievements of the Museum exhibition activity include exhibition “Arkaim: ancient settlements of the South Urals” in France (Tende) held jointly with the Museum of Nature and Human Nature Reserve “Arkaim”.​

The museum exposition acquaints visitors with the history of South Urals. The first people, mammoth hunters and horses of the periglacial period appeared here in the Mousterian epoch, not later than 40 thousand years ago. Centers of spiritual life were located in caves with magical images of animals. There are two such caves in Russia: Kapovaya cave in Bashkiria and Ignatievska cave on the bank of the river Sim in the Chelyabinsk region. In the Neolithic period (IV – III centuries BC) in the South Urals there were domestic horses, settled lifestyle and copper development.

However, the colossal events took place in the South Urals steppes in III - II centuries BC. Western tribes, belonged to the Indo-European language group​, moved to the South Urals, built series of fortified settlements, so-called "The Country of towns". The most well-known settlement is Arkaim. The development of metallurgy, architecture and​ spiritual culture were on the highest level that times. Culture of "proto-cities" was short-lived, barely more than three hundred years.​